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Sustainability

In the P2P Food Lab, we are working on the topic of sustainable,
community-based food systems. Such food systems are based on
agroecological principles. They are also collaborative and
decentralised. We are particularly interesting in the role that
technology can play in such systems, including computer science,
robotics, and A.I. We are aware that technology can only solve part of
the sustainability equation. That is why we also have a strong
interest in the socio-economic questions related to food systems and
in the notion of the “Commons” as an organisational structure.

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"LettuceThink" is a prototype robot aimed at small-scale organic market farms that grow hundreds of varieties of vegetables during one season. In...
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The FabCity Summit brings together luminaries to envision how cities...
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CitizenSeeds is a participative project for amateur gardeners. They are asked to share their experiences of growing a given set of seeds....
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2017

LettuceThink: An open and versatile robotic platform for weeding and crop monitoring on microfarms

Authors
David Colliaux , Aurèle Macé , Peter Hanappe |

European conference dedicated to the future use of ICT in the agri-food sector, bioresource and biomass sector (EFITA), Montpellier, France, July, 2017.

2017

Bringing phenotyping to the farm: an evaluation of 3d reconstruction of plants in outdoor environement

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
David Colliaux , Peter Hanappe |

ICCV 2017 workshop on Computer Vision Problems in Plant Phenotyping, Venise, Italy, November, 2017.

2017

Evaluation model for multi-microgrid with autonomous DC energy exchange

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Annette Werth , Kitamura Nobuyuki , Tokoro Mario , Atau Tanaka |

IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2017.

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Abstract

This paper proposes an evaluation model to analyze the impact of microgrid topologies on self‐sufficiency for a given size of batteries and photovoltaic (PV) panels (resources). Three topologies are evaluated for a community of 19 houses: centralized resources (ideal case), stand‐alone resources, and a multi‐microgrid topology with autonomous exchange. Depending on the ratio of PV and battery size, the topology with stand‐alone resources has a clear disadvantage in terms of self‐sufficiency compared to the centralized, ideal topology. To counteract this, we propose a hybrid topology: households are interconnected so that they can exchange energy between each other based on an autonomous energy exchange algorithm we developed. We show that for a well‐chosen ratio of batteries and PV, the interconnected system can improve the stand‐alone design by up to 10% without requiring any additional resources. This topology can approach performance similar to that of a centralized microgrid but its design is more flexible and resilient to failures or accidents. The evaluation model computes the self‐sufficiency ratio (SSR) for the three topologies for 0–20 kWh batteries and 1–14 kWp PV sizes. Furthermore, seasonal differences in SSR per topology are analyzed for an actual community with real resources. We also calculate the savings in PV and battery due to the interconnected topology. Finally, the third topology’s feasibility is demonstrated on a full‐scale platform in Okinawa on which the autonomous energy exchange software was tested for over a year in a community of 19 houses. © 2017 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2016

Agroecology: A Fertile Field for Human Computation

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Hanappe P. , Dunlop R. , Maes A. , Steels L. , Duval N. |

Human Computation Journal, 2016.

2016

Peer-to-peer Control System for DC Microgrids

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Annette Werth , André A , Kawamoto D , Morita T , Tajima S , Tokoro M , Yanagidaira D , Atau Tanaka |

Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 2016. pp.1--8.

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Abstract

We propose and implement a dc microgrid with a fully decentralized control system, using the ICT concept of network overlays and peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Decentralization not only concerns the physical systems and control logic but also the control structure which provides the network infrastructure on which Energy Management is carried out. In this study, we show how such decentralization can be achieved using P2P frameworks as underlying control structures and implemented a pure P2P to eliminate single points of failure. For this, a Direct Current Open Energy System (DC-OES) made of the interconnection of standalone dc nanogrids is used as underlying microgrid. The power flows between nanogrids are controlled by a decentralized exchange strategy: each household can request or respond to energy deals with its neighbours without requiring system-wide knowledge or control. Using dc combined with a layered, modular software allows loose coupling which increases flexibility and dependability. The system has been implemented and tested on a full-scale platform in Okinawa including 19 inhabited houses. Real data analysis as well as simulations demonstrate improvements in selfsufficiency compared to other types of systems. Resilience against utility blackouts is proven in practice.

2015

Foundation of CS-DC e-laboratory: Open Systems Exploration for Ecosystems Leveraging

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Funabashi M. , Peter Hanappe , Isozaki T. , Maes A. , Sasaki T. , Luc Steels , Yoshida K. |

Proceedings of Complex Systems Digital Campus '15 (CS-DC'15), Phoenix, Arizona (USA), Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 2015.

2015

Evaluation of centralized and distributed microgrid topologies and comparison to Open Energy Systems (OES)

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Annette Werth , Kitamura Nobuyuki , Matsumoto Ippei , Atau Tanaka |

2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2015. pp.492--497.

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Abstract

In this study we examine microgrid topologies that combine solar panels and batteries for a community of 20 residential houses: In the first case we consider a system with centralized PV panels and batteries that distributes the energy to the 20 homes. In the second case we consider 20 standalone home systems with roof-top PV panels and batteries. Using real electricity consumption and solar irradiation data we simulated the overall demand energy that could replaced by solar energy for both topologies. The centralized-resources approach achieves better performance but it requires extended planning and high initial investments, while the distributed approach can be gradually built bottom-up. We analyze the additional resource investment needed to reach the same electricity savings as for the centralized topology. Finally, we compare it to a hybrid approach named Open Energy Systems (OES), a 2-layered microgrid made of interconnected nanogrids and show that it improves the solar replacement ratio by autonomously exchanging energy with neighbors.

2015

Conceptual Study for Open Energy Systems: Distributed Energy Network Using Interconnected DC Nanogrids

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Annette Werth , Kitamura Nobuyuki , Atau Tanaka |

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2015. pp.1621--1630.

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Abstract

We describe the general concept and practical feasibility of a dc-based open energy system (OES) that proposes an alternative way of exchanging intermittent energy between houses in a local community. Each house is equipped with a dc nanogrid, including photovoltaic panels and batteries. We extend these nanogrids with a bidirectional dc–dc converter and a network controller so that power can be exchanged between houses over an external dc power bus. In this way, demand-response fluctuations are absorbed not only by the local battery, but can be spread over all batteries in the system. By using a combination of voltage and current controlled units, we implemented a higher-level control software independent from the physical process. A further software layer for autonomous control handles power exchange based on a distributed multiagent system, using a peer-to-peer like architecture. In parallel to the software, we made a physical model of a four-node OES on which different power exchange strategies can be simulated and compared. First results show an improved solar replacement ratio, and thus a reduction of ac grid consumption thanks to power interchange. The concept’s feasibility has been demonstrated on the first three houses of a full-scale OES platform in Okinawa.

2012

Fine-grained CPU Throttling to Reduce the Energy Footprint of Volunteer Computing

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Peter Hanappe |

Sony Computer Science Laboratory Paris, January, 2012.

2011

FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Peter Hanappe , Anthony Beurivé , Florence Laguzet , Luc Steels , Bellouin N. , Sophie Boucher , Yamazaki Y.H. , Aina T. , Allen M. |

Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 3, 2011. pp.835--844.

2010

Laptops Unite! Supercomputer for climate simulation

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Peter Hanappe |

We Can Change the Weather: 101 Cases of Changeability, edited by:Wynants, M. and Engelen, S., VUBPress Brussels University Press, 2010. pp.46-47.

2009

Citizen Noise Pollution Monitoring

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Nicolas Maisonneuve , Matthias Stevens , Niessen M. E. , Peter Hanappe , Luc Steels |

dg.o '09: Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (Puebla,Mexico; May 17-20,2009), Digital Government Society of North America / ACM Press, May, 2009.

Bottom-up and Recursive Interconnection for Multi-layer DC Microgrids

Topics:
sustainability
Authors
Annette Werth , Tokoro Mario , Atau Tanaka |

2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC),

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Abstract

We propose a recursively scalable DC infrastructure starting off from simple DC nanogrids (subsystem) that are interconnected via a DC power bus line to form a cluster. We have conceived a non-droop based procedure to exchange power from one subsystem to another in order to balance demand/generation fluctuations within the community without requiring any central monitoring or control. To scale the procedure to higher layers we further propose three approaches that could be used for managing power ex-changes between clusters. The approaches are compared using analogies with the internet architecture i.e. circuit-switching,packet-switching and virtual switching. Each approach is analyzed in its ability to provide decoupling between analog and digital-centric goals as well as between infrastructures. Furthermore, we discuss whether the approaches could verify the four ground rules of the internet. The 2-layer architecture and the procedure for DC power exchange has been validated in practice on a full-scale 19DC nanogrids installed in inhabited houses in Okinawa. The evaluation of the multi-layer exchange procedure is still ongoing.

Peter Hanappe PhD

Researcher

sustainability

PI in sustainability

Annette Werth PhD

Associate Researcher

creativity, sustainability

David Colliaux PhD

Assistant Researcher

sustainability

Aliénor Lahlou

Student

sustainability

Timothée Wintz PhD

Assistant Researcher

sustainability

Eulalie Boucher

Student

sustainability

Issam Laazary

Student

sustainability

Wissam Makhlouf

Student

sustainability

Ariane Courcier

Student

sustainability

Michka Mélo

Assistant Researcher

sustainability