@INPROCEEDINGS { steels:09f, address = {San Francisco},author = {Steels, Luc and Spranger, Michael},booktitle = {IJCAI'09: Proceedings of the 21st international joint conference on Artifical intelligence},note = {Language},pages = {14--19},publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann},title = {How Experience of the Body Shapes Language about Space},type = {INPROCEEDINGS},year = {2009},abstract = {Open-ended language communication remains an enormous challenge for autonomous robots. This paper argues that the notion of a language strategy is the appropriate vehicle for addressing this challenge. A language strategy packages all the procedures that are necessary for playing a language game. We present a specific example of a language strategy for playing an Action Game in which one robot asks another robot to take on a body posture (such as stand or sit), and show how it effectively allows a population of agents to self-organise a perceptually grounded ontology and a lexicon from scratch, without any human intervention. Next, we show how a new language strategy can arise by exaptation from an existing one, concretely, how the body posture strategy can be exapted to a strategy for playing language games about the spatial position of objects (as in ?the bottle stands on the table?).}}