@INPROCEEDINGS { steels:07b, address = {Berlin},author = {Steels, Luc and van Trijp, Remi and Wellens, Pieter},booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Artificial Life},editor = {Almeida e Costa, F. and Rocha, L.M. and Costa, E. and Harvey, I.},note = {Language},publisher = {Springer-Verlag},series = {LNAI 4648},title = {Multi-Level Selection in the Emergence of Language Systematicity},type = {INPROCEEDINGS},year = {2007},url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-74913-4_43},abstract = {Language can be viewed as a complex adaptive system which is continuously shaped and reshaped by the actions of its users as they try to solve communicative problems. To maintain coherence in the overall system, different language elements (sounds, words, grammatical constructions) compete with each other for global acceptance. This paper examines what happens when a language system uses systematic structure, in the sense that certain meaning-form conventions are themselves parts of larger units. We argue that in this case multi-level selection occurs: at the level of elements (e.g. tense affixes) and at the level of larger units in which these elements are used (e.g. phrases). Achieving and maintaining linguistic coherence in the population under these conditions is non-trivial. This paper shows that it is nevertheless possible when agents take multiple levels into account both for processing meaning-form associations and for consolidating the language inventory after each interaction.}}